15 July 2018

Elephant Reserves in India | A complete List | Important for RRB, SSC, IBPS exams.

National Parks in India

India has so many National Parks in India, Wildlife Sanctuaries in India and elephant park. Today we will discuss about indian elephant.

There are 32 Elephant Reserves in India which are governed by Project Elephant. Total population of elephants in 2005 was nearly 21,200. The latest census carried out in 2012 put Elephant Population between 27,785 and 31,368.

About Project Elephant (PE)


Project Elephant was launched in 1992 by the Government of India Ministry of Environment and Forests to provide financial and technical support of wildlife management efforts by states for their free ranging populations of wild Asian Elephants. The project aims to ensure long-term survival of viable conservation reliant populations of elephants in their natural habitats by protecting the elephants, their habitats and migration corridors. Other goals of Project Elephant are supporting research of the ecology and management of elephants, creating conservation awareness among local people, providing improved veterinary care for captive elephants.

Objectives of Project Elephant


Project Elephant (PE) was launched by the Government of India in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with following objectives:
To protect elephants, their habitat & corridors
To address issues of man-animal conflict
Welfare of captive elephants
Elephant conservation in India

Activities


Financial and Technical support are being provided to major elephant bearing States in the country. The Project is being mainly implemented in 16 States / UTs, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. Main activities under the Project are as follows:
Ecological restoration of existing natural habitats and migratory routes of elephants;
Development of scientific and planned management for conservation of elephant habitats and viable population of Wild Asiatic elephants in India;
Promotion of measures for mitigation of man elephant conflict in crucial habitats and moderating pressures of human and domestic stock activities in crucial elephant habitats;
Strengthening of measures for protection of Wild elephants from poachers and unnatural causes of death;
Research on Elephant management related issues;
Public education and awareness programmes;
Eco-development
Veterinary care
Elephant Rehabilitation/Rescue Centers

As of 2010, 32 Elephant Reserves (ERs) extending over about 58,000 square kilometres (22,000 sq mi) have been formally notified by various State Governments. The list of Elephant Reserves with area and elephant population is as follows:
                        

Elephant reserves of Project Elephant in India (2005)

S.No.
Reserve Name
Range
Estd.
State
Total area (km²)
Population
1
Mayurjharna
East-Central
2002
West Bengal
414
96
2
Singhbhum
East-Central
2001
Jharkhand
4,530
371
3
Mayurbhanj
East-Central
2001
Orissa
3,214
465
4
5
Sambalpur
East-Central
2002
Orissa
427
336
6
Baitarni
East-Central
Orissa
1,755
108
7
South Orissa
East-Central
Orissa
1,049
138
8
Lemru
East-Central
Chhattisgarh
450
9
Badalkhol-Tamorpingla
East-Central
Chhattisgarh
4,216
138
10
Kameng
Kameng-Sonitpur
2002
Arunachal Pradesh
1,892
11
Sonitpur
Kameng-Sonitpur
2003
Assam
1,420
612
12
Dihing-Patkai
Eastern-South
2003
Assam
937
295
13
South Arunachal
Eastern-South
Arunachal Pradesh
900+
129
14
Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong
Kaziranga
2003
Assam
3,270
1,940
15
Dhansiri-Lungding
Kaziranga
2003
Assam
2,740
275
16
Intanki
Kaziranga
2005
Nagaland
202
30
17
Chirang-Ripu
North Bengal-Greater Manas
2003
Assam
2,600
658
18
Eastern Dooars
North Bengal-Greater Manas
2002
West Bengal
978
300-350
19
Garo Hills
Meghalaya
2001
Meghalaya
3,500
1,047
20
Khasi Hills
Meghalaya
Meghalaya
1,331
383
21
Mysore
Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
2002
Karnataka
6,724
4,452
22
Wayanad
Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
2002
Kerala
1,200
636
23
Nilgiri
Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
2003
Karnataka
4,663
2,862
24
Rayala
Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
2003
Andhra Pradesh
766
12
25
Nilambur
Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
2002
Kerala
1,419
281
26
Coimbatore
Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats
2003
Tamil Nadu
566
329
27
Anamalai
Anamalai-Nelliampathy-High Range
2003
Tamil Nadu
1,457
179
28
Anamudi
Anamalai-Nelliampathy-High Range
2002
Kerala
3,728
1,547
29
Periyar
Periyar-Agasthyamalai
2002
Kerala
3,742
1,100
30
Srivilliputtur
Periyar-Agasthyamalai
2003
Tamil Nadu
1,249
638
31
Shivalik
North-Western
2003
Uttarakhand
5,405
1,610
32
Uttar Pradesh
North-Western
2009
Uttar Pradesh
744
Project Elephant
Total
69,583
21,370

Enumeration (Elephant Population)


The first exclusive exercise for enumeration of wild elephants in the ERs was conducted during February to May 2005. This exercise also sought to experiment with two sampling methods, viz. Block sampling and Line transect-Dung Count. PE arranged for training of trainers and also issued detailed guidelines to the chief wildlife wardens and the field coordinators. Total population of elephants in 2005 was nearly 21,200. The latest census carried out in 2012 put elephant numbers between 27,785 and 31,368.

Monitoring Against Elephant Poaching


Project Elephant has been formally implementing MIKE (Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants) programme of in 10 ERs since January 2004. It is mandated by COP resolution of CITES. It was started in South Asia in 2003 with the following purpose:

To measure levels and trends in illegal hunting of elephants.
To determine changes in these trends overtime.
To determine the factors causing or associated with these changes and to try and assess in particular to what extent observed trends are a result of any decisions taken by the Conference of the Parties to CITES.
Data are collected from all sites on monthly basis in specified MIKE patrol form and submitted to Sub-Regional Support Office for South Asia Programme in Delhi who are assisting Ministry in implementation of the programme.

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01 July 2018

Parliament of India | List of Lok Sabha Speakers

Lok Sabha Speaker List

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. The speaker is elected in the very first meeting of the Lok Sabha following general elections. Serving for a term of five years, the Speaker chosen from amongst the members of the Lok Sabha, and is by convention a member of the ruling party or alliance.
The current speaker is Sumitra Mahajan of the Bharatiya Janata Party, who is presiding over the 16th Lok Sabha. She is the second woman to hold the office, after her immediate predecessor Meira Kumar ( Meira Kumar was first female speaker of lok sabha ).

Eligibility Criteria Of a Speaker of Loksabha

1) He or She must be a citizen of India.
2) He or She must not be less than 25 years of age.
3) He or She should not hold any office of profit under the Government of India,or the Government of any other state.



Speaker of the Lok Sabha
Sabha
Flag of India
Incumbent
Sumitra Mahajan
Style
The Honourable
Appointer
Members of the Lok Sabha
Term length
During the life of the Lok Sabha (five years maximum)
Inaugural holder
Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar
Formation
15 May 1952
Deputy
M. Thambidurai
Website

List of Lok Sabha Speakers of India


No.
Name
Term
Party
From
To
Length
Lok Sabha
1
Shri Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar
15 May 1952
27 February 1956
3 years, 288 days
1st
Indian National Congress
2
Shri M. A. Ayyangar
8 March 1956
10 May 1957
1 year, 63 days
11 May 1957
16 April 1962
4 years, 340 days
2nd
3
Shri Sardar Hukam Singh
17 April 1962
16 March 1967
4 years, 333 days
3rd
4
Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
17 March 1967
19 July 1969
2 years, 124 days
4th
5
Shri Gurdial Singh Dhillon
8 August 1969
19 March 1971
1 year, 221 days
22 March 1971
1 December 1975
4 years, 254 days
5th
6
Shri Bali Ram Bhagat
15 January 1976
25 March 1977
1 year, 69 days
(4)
Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
26 March 1977
13 July 1977
109 days
6th
Janata Party
7
Shri K. S. Hegde
21 July 1977
21 January 1980
2 years, 184 days
8
Shri Balram Jakhar
22 January 1980
27 oct 1984
3 years, 358 days
7th
Indian National Congress
16 January 1985
18 December 1989
4 years, 336 days
8th
9
Shri Rabi Ray
19 December 1989
9 July 1991
1 year, 202 days
9th
Janata Dal
10
Shri Shivraj Patil
10 July 1991
22 May 1996
4 years, 317 days
10th
Indian National Congress
11
Shri P. A. Sangma
23 May 1996
23 March 1998
1 year, 304 days
11th
12
Shri G. M. C. Balayogi
24 March 1998
19 October 1999
1 year, 209 days
12th
Telugu Desam Party
22 October 1999
3 March 2002
2 years, 132 days
13th
13
Shri Manohar Joshi
10 May 2002
2 June 2004
2 years, 23 days
Shiv Sena
14
Shri Somnath Chatterjee
4 June 2004
31 May 2009
4 years, 361 days
14th
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
15
Smt.Meira Kumar
4 June 2009
4 June 2014
5 years, 0 days
15th
Indian National Congress
16
Smt.Sumitra Mahajan
5 June 2014
Incumbent
4 years, 23 days
16th
Bharatiya Janata Party


Powers and functions of the Speaker


The Speaker of the Lok Sabha conducts the business in house; and decides whether a bill is a money bill or not. They maintain discipline and decorum in the house and can punish a member for their unruly behavior by suspending them. They also permit the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions such as a motion of no confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per the rules. The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for discussion during the meeting. The date of election of the speaker is fixed by the President. Further, all comments and speeches made by members of the House are addressed to the speaker. The speaker also presides over the joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament. The counterpart of the Speaker in the Rajya Sabha is the Chairman, who is the Vice President of India. In the warrant of precedence, the speaker of Lok Sabha comes next only to The Deputy Prime Minister of India. Speaker has the sixth rank in the political executive of India.

Removal of the Speaker


Speaker can be removed by the Lok Sabha by a resolution passed by an effective majority of the House as per Articles 94 and 96.

Speaker is also removed on getting disqualified for being Lok Sabha member under sections 7 & 8 of Representation of the People Act, 1951. This would arise out of speaker's wrong certification of a bill as money bill inconsistent with the definition given in Articles 110 of the constitution. When courts uphold the unconstitutional act of the speaker for wrong certification of a bill as money bill, it amounts to disrespecting the constitution deserving conviction under Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 which is applicable for disqualification of speaker's Lok Sabha membership under section 8k of Representation of the People Act, 1951. However the omissions in the procedure committed by the speaker in the Lok Sabha can not be challenged in court of law per Article 122
Source : Wikipedia

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